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语际负迁移引起的高中英语写作错误分析及教学策略研究

作者:罗熹亮 来源:本站原创 发布时间:2016年11月07日 点击数:

语际负迁移引起的高中英语写作错误分析及教学策略研究  

Analysis of Errors Caused by Inter-lingual Negative Transfer on Students’ English Writing in Senior High Schools and Study of Teaching Strategies   

 湖南省浏阳市第九中学  罗熹亮  

 

    

英语写作作为一种交流的重要工具对于高中学生来讲是极其重要的,它是学生英语学习综合能力的体现。但写作对于高中学生来讲是最难掌握的,许多学生感觉很难提高英语写作能力,写作中频繁的出现各种错误,其中很多错误是由于语际负迁移的影响。高中英语教师有必要对这些错误进行分析,从而采取适当的教学策略去减少学生写作中的错误,提高写作教学效率和学生的写作能力。在本研究中,笔者在第二语言习得中语际迁移理论的指导下,对在多年教学中收集的高中学生写作中的常见错误进行了详细的分析,并提出了相应教学策略。  

 

关键词:语际负迁移;错误分析;教学策略  

Abstract  

English writing, one of the most important tools of communication, is vital for senior students. It reflects students’ comprehensive learning ability of the English language. However, writing is the toughest job for senior students and many of them find it difficult to improve their English writing ability. Various errors are often seen in their writings, most of which are caused by inter-lingual negative transfer. It is necessary for senior English teachers to analyze those mistakes in order to reduce mistakes, increase teaching efficiency and improve students’ writing ability. In this research, under the guidance of Inter-lingual Transfer Theory in Second Language Acquisition, the author analyzes some common errors from his students’ compositions which have been collected over the past few years. Based on this, the author gives some practical teaching strategies.  

 

Key Words: Inter-lingual negative transfer; Error analysis; Teaching strategies  

 

   一、问题的提出  

随着社会的快速发展,国际交流变得越来越频繁,英语作为一种通用的国际语言被越来越广泛的应用。因此,作为一种基础教育,高中英语教学就显得尤为重要,因为它将为学生今后的进一步学习以及未来的就业奠定基础。英语写作作为一种重要的交流工具也就显得越来越重要了。英语写作是一项学生必须掌握的基本语言技能,是学生英语综合运用能力的集中体现。高中英语写作要求学生有扎实的语言基本功、具备一定的审题能力、想象能力、表达能力等,要求学生能在充分领会写作提示的前提下,用自己的语言组织一篇内容充实、句子连贯、用词贴切的作文。国家教委颁布的最新《普通高中英语课程标准》(实验稿)(2003)对学生的各级英语写作能力有了具体明确的要求。高中毕业生应达到课程标准中规定的语言技能第七级目标,其中对写的要求是:能用文字及图表提供信息并进行简单描述;能写出常见体裁的应用文,例如:信函和一般通知等;能描述人物或事件,并进行简单的评论;能填写有关个人情况的表格,例如:申请表等;能以小组形式根据课文改编短剧。课程标准中还对写作给出了具体的评价标准:对学生的作文主要从内容要点、语言使用效果、结构和连贯性、格式和语域以及与目标读者的交流五个方面进行评价。  

在历年的英语高考中,写作占据着不可忽视的重要比例。例如,湖南省高考英语写作分值是25分,占整个试卷150分的16.7%。然而,2010年湖南省考生的写作平均分只有10.26分。根据湖南省高考英语写作评分标准的5个档次,这个数字表明我省高中学生的英语写作平均水平处在第二档和第三档之间,这意味着他们的写作中存在着审题、语法结构、词汇、连贯等方面的问题或错误,这些错误很多是受汉语的负迁移的影响而造成的。本研究是在第二语言习得中语际迁移理论的指导下,对笔者在多年教学中收集到的高中生英语写作中出现的错误进行分析,进而提出相应的应对这些错误的写作教学的策略,希望能对今后的高中英语写作教学有所帮助。  

     二、语际迁移理论  

语际迁移是一种语言对学习另一种语言产生的影响,是第二语言习得过程中的一种常见现象。语际迁移分为两种:正迁移(positive transfer)和负迁移(negative transfer)。当母语的某些形式或规则系统同目标语相似或完全一致时,往往产生正迁移,对外语学习有促进作用。当母语的某些形式和规则系统同目标语不同时则会导致外语学习中的负迁移,对外语学习产生干扰作用。母语的干扰会导致错误的出现,延长学习者犯错误的时间。学习第二语言和学习第一语言是不同的,其基本问题的产生不是由于新语言的特点本身带来的学习上的困难,而主要是由于第一语言习惯造成的特殊定势而造成的困难。究其原因,往往是因为在外语学习的早期阶段,学习者的语言经验主要是来自母语,由于不熟悉目的语的规则,学习者往往把母语中的词汇、语法等方面的规则机械地运用到目的语的语境中,从而导致错误。中国学生受汉语系统的影响,他们在学习英语的过程中不可避免地将汉语的形式和意义反映到英语学习中来,而且这种情况很难在短时间内根除。

三、语际负迁移引起的高中生英语写作错误的分析

高中生由于接触的目的语数量还不够多,他们对英语的某些规则尚未完全掌握,在英语学习过程中就会自然地把汉语的语言规则或表达习惯运用到英语的写作当中,更多地借助母语来构建自己的中介语,这样,英语写作受母语负迁移作用的干扰和影响很大,母语的干扰造成的错误很多。笔者把学生在英语写作中由语际负迁移引起的错误分为以下几种:  

   3.1文化负迁移错误  

语言和文化之间存在着必然的联系,语言是文化的载体,语言反映着某种文化,包含着以该文化为背景的人们的生活方式、思维方式等。语言不能脱离文化而存在,文化的不同导致了语言的差别。文化迁移模式理论强调语言学习者所处的社会文化背景对其学习心理的影响。如果学习者所处的社会文化与目的语的文化差异很大,学习者就会认为该语言很难学而产生一种畏惧心理,不愿去接近这种语言,这对目的语的学习有一定的限制。在用目的语交流时,学习者一旦遇到不知如何表达的情况时就会自然而然的用到母语的习惯来处理自己的语言,这时文化的迁移就发生了。英汉两种语言分属两种不同的语系,以汉语为母语的中国学生在英语写作时必然会受到汉语言文化的影响,这样就自然会产生很多的错误。笔者把高中生英语写作中由于文化负迁移引起的错误分为以下几类:  

 3.1.1 词汇使用错误  

1.词类混淆错误  

由于汉语中多为兼类词,即同一个词在不同的语境中会呈现出不同的词性,但词形不会发生任何变化,而英语词汇的大部分是词性不同词形就会不同。许多学生在用英语写作时只注意了英文单词的中文释义,而忽视了该词的词性,就会造成词类混用。下列句子中都出现了词类混淆的错误:  

(1). Playing computer games too much is not only bad for our study but also harmful to our healthy. à Playing computer games too much is not only bad for our study but also harmful to our health.  

(2).With the development of economic, more and more people like playing computer games. à With the development of economy, more and more people like playing computer games.  

(3).With the development of social, private cars are becoming more and more. à With the development of society, private cars are becoming more and more.  

(4).Despite he was only a child, he knew much. à Although he was only a child, he knew much.  

(5).She apologized to us for lating. à She apologized to us for being late.  

(6).Tom does his homework as careful as Mary. à Tom does his homework as carefully as Mary.  

(7).Can you make it clearly what we should do nextà Can you make it clear what we should do next  

(8).The boy looks healthily. à The boy looks healthy.   

(9).The book is of great valuable. à The book is of great value.  

(10).He treated others friendly. à He treated others kindly.  

(11).With time goes by, more and more people are aware of the importance of protecting the environment. à As time goes by (With time going by), more and more people are aware of the importance of protecting the environment.  

(12)I was deep moved by the film. àI was deeply moved by the film.   

教师在教学过程中要有意识提醒学生注意英汉词类的不同,并把词类易混淆的词进行归类比较,对这些词加以强调以帮助学生记忆。如:social / societybreathe / breath.教师还要设计一些相关练习帮助学生熟练这些词的用法,如:  

Fill in the blanks with the proper form, tense or part of speech of the words in brackets.  

(1).My mother always said that patience is very important. You have to be patient if you want to succeed in life. (patience)  

(2).Her spoken English was weak, but she kept on practicing in order to make up for this weakness. (weak)  

(3).Mrs Green is not interested in politics because she feels that political things do not affect her life. (politics)  

(4).The city is constructing a new stadium for the Olympic Games. The Olympic Stadium will be a very modern construction. (construct)  

2.同义词、近义词用法混淆  

英语中词的意思有时与汉语并不对应,但高中生常受母语负迁移的影响,让英语的每个词和汉语的每个词一一对应,将汉语的某些字或词语的译文直接套在英语单词上造成词不达意的错误,这是大部分高中生常犯的错误,如:  

(1).If you want to get more information about this topic, you should look more books. à If you want to get more information about this topic, you should read more books.  

(2). A great number of money was spent on the project. à A great deal / amount of money was spent on the project.  

(3).Playing computer games spends too much pocket money. à Playing computer games costs too much pocket money.  

(4).I can borrow my book to you. à I can lend my book to you.  

(5).I can talk English with foreigners. à I can speak English with foreigners.  

(6).The prices of the goods are cheap in   China  . à The prices of the goods are low in   China  .  

(7).Smoking is bad for our body. à Smoking is bad for our health.  

(8).He tried to get the passport and realized his dream of learning abroad. à He managed to get the passport and realized his dream of learning abroad.   

(9).Did you see TV last night? à Did you watch TV last night?  

(10).The doctor told him to eat the medicine three times a day. à The doctor told him to take the medicine three times a day.  

(11).What a big wind! à What a heavy wind!  

(12).Water is necessary to us, and we can not leave water. à Water is necessary to us, and we need water/ we can not go without water.  

(13).I wish you have a good journey. à I hope you have a good journey. / I wish you a good journey.   

(14).My heart is jumping faster than usual. à My heart is beating faster than usual.  

(15).I was watching TV while my mother came back home. à I was watching TV when my mother came back home.  

(16).China’s population is the most in the world. à   China  ’s population is the largest in the world.   

(17).The young should learn knowledge as much as possible. à The young should acquire / obtain knowledge as much as possible.  

再如,汉语中同样是,但在组成英语短语时,表达方式却发生了变化,学生在这些词上也经常会出现错误的搭配,如:  

看电视 à watch TV  

看医生 à see a doctor  

看书 à read a book  

看电影 à see a film  

打电话 à call up sb.  

打篮球 à play basketball  

打人 à hit sb.   

打车 à take a taxi.  

     3.1.2 语法错误  

高中生英语写作中出现的很多错误是源于英汉两种语言不同的语法规则,学生在英语写作时总是先用母语思维,再把母语转换成目的语,字字对译。笔者从以下几个方面来探讨高中生英语写作中的常见的语法错误以及产生的原因。  

1.动词时态的误用  

英语时态是动词的语法形式,分Tense)与Aspect)两个语法范畴。英语的动词有四种,即过去时现在时将来时过去将来时。过去时的规则形式是-ed形式,不规则形式因动词而异。现在时有两种形式,一是零形式,即没有曲折形式变化形式,二是-s-es形式。英语动词有四种,即一般体进行体完成体完成进行体是不可分开的,它们只有融合在一起才能构成完整的动词时态形式。高中英语常见时态有下列11种时态:一般现在时、现在进行时、现在完成时、现在完成进行时、一般过去时、过去进行时、过去完成时、一般将来时、过去将来时、将来完成时、将来进行时。由于英语时态种类繁多,动词的构成形式随着时态的变化而变化,而中文里没有时态区分,动作或动词的时间由跟在动词后的诸如等副词小词来表示,由于受到汉语的影响,高中生在写作中经常出现动词时态方面犯错误。如:  

(1)If it won’t rain, we will go hiking. à If it doesn’t rain, we will go hiking.  

(2)I spend 50 yuan buying the dress. à I spent 50 yuan buying the dress.  

(3)We learned English for almost 6 years since we began to learn it. à We have learned English for almost 6 years since we began to learn it.  

(4)He is born in 1990. à He was born in 1990.  

(5)Did you go to the Great Wall so far? à Have you been to the Great Wall so far?  

(6)Have you been to the Great Wall last summer? à Did you go to the Great Wall last summer?  

(7)They worked when I left. à They were working when I left.  

(8)He said Li Lei helped him with his homework. à He said Li Lei had helped him with his homework.  

(9The teacher told us that the earth moved around the sun. à The teacher told us that the earth moves around the sun.  

(10)Great changes took place in our hometown in the past few years. à Great changes have taken place in our hometown in the past few years.  

(11)Please hurry! The flight HU2998 will take off at 8:40am. à Please hurry! The flight HU2998 takes off at 8:40am.  

为了减少学生写作中的时态错误,教师在教学过程中除了跟学生讲清楚各种时态的基本用法外,还应总结一些好的办法让学生能轻松的辨别各种时态。笔者认为,学生可以按以下办法选择正确的时态:  

(1)理解句子表述的动作或事件发生的时间,选择正确的时态  

1)与汉语相同的,如上文所举例句(4),“1990是过去的时间,所以谓语动词要用一般过去时。  

2)与汉语有点区别但有规律可循的,如上文所举例句(1),在时间、条件等状语从句中常用一般现在时表示将来的动作,所以该句从句谓语要用“doesn’t rain”;例句(3),当since+过去动作时,主句用现在完成时;例句(5)(10),当时间状语是so far / in the past few years等时,句子要用现在完成时;例句(8),当主句谓语动词是过去时,宾语从句要用相应的过去时态,如果宾语从句叙述的是客观事实要用一般现在时,如例句(9);句子中有具体的过去时间不要现在完成时,如例句(6)  

(2)理解句子表述的动作或事件发生的时间,但不同表达方式有不同意思的某些动词,如上文所举例句(11),谓语动词“take off”用一般现在时是指按照时间表或既定日程飞机一定会在上午8:40起飞。如果只是表示将来动词要用一般将来时表示,如:The flight will take off soon.  

2.动词语态的误用  

英语动词有两种语态:主动语态(active voice)和被动语态(passive voice,用来表明句子主语和谓语动词之间的关系。英语中的动词分及物和不及物动词,只有及物动词或一些及物动词短语才有被动语态,不及物动词或短语和系动词没有被动语态,而用主动语态表示被动意义。  

动词的被动式在英语中比比皆是,学生由于汉语思维的影响,很少考虑到用被动语态。虽然中文里也有被动式的含义,但与英语里被动式表达方式完全不同。英语里的被动式要求有助动词be和一个变异的过去分词形式,其中这个助动词带有时态和人称数量信息,中文里需要使用诸如使等词语,不需要有不规则的动词形式,这对中国的学习者来说就有潜在的困难。如:  

(1)It is showed that people with different ages have different ways to deal with their pocket money. à It showed that people with different ages have different ways to deal with their pocket money.  

(2)Most of the pocket money spend on books. à Most of the pocket money is spent on books.  

(3)The book has to return at the end of the month. à The book has to be returned at the end of the month.  

(4)The little girl seated in the front of the room. à The little girl was seated in the front of the room.  

(5)Pollution is not a question that can ignore. à Pollution is not a question that can be ignored.  

受汉语的影响,学生还常常把英语里没有被动语态的词()用作被动语态,如:take place, occur, happen, belong toappear, break out, rise, die等。  

(6)This book is belonged to my brother. à This book belongs to my brother.   

(7)The traffic accident was happened last night. à The traffic accident happened last night.  

(8)My pocket money has been run out. à My pocket money has been used up. / My pocket money has run out (given out).  

英语里还经常有些词习惯上要用主动形式表示被动意义,这也是学生常常出错的地方,如:  

(9)The cloth is washed well. à The cloth washes well.  

(10)The question is difficult to be answered. à The question is difficult to answer.  

(11)It is not his fault, so he is not to be blamed. à It is not his fault, so he is not to blame.  

有些动词短语中的介词在被动语态中常常被学生忽视了,如:  

(12)He is often laughed by his classmates. à He is often laughed at by his classmates.  

(13)The children have been taken good care. à The children have been taken good care of.  

(14)Time is precious and should be made full use. à Time is precious and should be made full use of.  

为了克服汉语对英语语态方面的干扰,笔者认为,教师首先要让学生了解英语被动语态的基本用法,可以让学生做一些主被动相互转换的练习,如:  

(1)The police punished the criminal. à The criminal was punished (by the police).  

(2)He should do the work at once. à The work should be done (by him) at once.  

(3)They offered him some help. à He was offered some assistance (by him). / Some help was offered to him (by them).  

(4)We have painted the windows green. à The windows have been painted green (by us).  

另外,教师要归纳一些特殊用法:  

(1)有时可以用主语+get+过去分词+其他成分来表示被动,如:  

He got fired because of his serious faults.  

(2)部分含及物动词的句子不能用被动形式,如:  

I teach myself Japanese.不能变成Myself is taught Japanese.因为反身代词不可做主语。  

They often help each other.不能变成Each other is helped by them.因为相互代词不可做主语。  

He lost heart.不能变成Heart was lost by him.因为lose heart, make a face, keep silence这类动宾结构的固定短语只能用于主动式,不能用被动式。  

We took part in the sports meet.不能变成The sports meet was taken part in by us.因为像take part in, belong to, own, have, hate, fail, contain等表示状态的动词短语没有被动语态。  

(3)有些动词要用主动形式表被动意义  

有些动词与状语连用,用以表示主语的品质和状态时用主动形式表被动意义。常见的动词有cut, sell, read, write, fill, cook, lock, wash, drive, keep等。如,The knife cuts well.这些词在用被动语态时表达的意义是完全不一样的,如下面两句就表达了两种不同的意义:His novels don’t sell well. / His novels are not sold.  

不定式在某些形容词之后,且与主语有动宾关系时也用主动形式。常见的形容词有hard, difficult, heavy, easy, fit, good, comfortable, convenient, impossible等。如,The question is difficult to answer.  

(4)主动语态中省略了动词不定式符号to的在变被动时要加上to.如,The boss made the workers work 12 hours a day. à The workers were made to work 12 hours a day by the boss.  

(5)非谓语动词的被动语态。如:  

Mr. Blank hurried to the airport, only to be told the flight had taken off.  

I’m honored to have been invited to give a speech here.  

I insisted on his/him being invited.  

3.延续与非延续性动词的误用  

由于汉语中动词没有延续与非延续之分,但英语动词分为延续性动词和非延续性动词,而英语中非延续性动词不能与表示一段时间的状语连用,高中生在英语写作时常因忽视这种差别而出现错误。如:  

(1)He has arrived here for two hours. à He has been here for two hours.  

(2)You can borrow this book for two weeks. à You can keep the book for two weeks.  

(3)He has left home for two years. à He has been away from home for two years. / He left home two years ago. / It’s two years since he left home.  

(4)He has joined the Party for three years. à He has been a party member for three years. / He joined the party three years ago.  

(5)I have come back home for two months. à I have been in the home for two months. / It’s two months since I came back home.  

笔者认为,在教学过程中教师要让学生归纳常用的非延续性动词,如:become, begin, buy, borrow, arrive, come, die, fall, finish, get to know, go, join, leave, marry, start, stop等。当这些动词后要跟表示一段时间的时间状语时,要让学生能灵活的将这些非延续性动词转换成相应的延续性动词或其它能跟段时间的时间状语的词。  

(1)用意义相同或相近的延续性动词替代。如:  

borrowàkeep, buyàhave, becomeàbe, get upàbe up, fall illàbe ill,  put onàwear, come hereàbe here, go thereàbe there, get to knowàknow,  go (get) outàbe out, fall asleepàbe asleep, get/catch a coldàhave a cold等。
    You can keep this book for 2 weeks.  

(2)“be+形容词替代。如:
    dieàbe dead, openàbe open, end/finishàbe over等。  

His grandfather has been dead for nearly ten years.
    (3)
“be+介词或副词替代。如:
    begin/startàbe on,  joinàbe in/be a member of, leaveàbe away, comeàbe in/here, goàbe away/out, reach/arrive/get toàstay/be in  

He has been here for about 2 hours.  

4.及物与不及物动词(短语)的误用  

英语中实义动词可分为及物与不及物动词,后面要跟宾语意思才完整的实义动词叫及物动词;后面不跟宾语意思就完整的动词叫不及物动词。不及物动词如果要跟宾语须加相应的介词。受汉语的影响,学生有时不能清楚的辨别一些动词是及物还是不及物动词,如:  

(1)He married with Ann last year. à He married Ann last year.  

(2)We should serve for our people and country. à We should serve our people and country.  

(3)  China   has taken place great changes in the past few decades. à Great changes have taken place in the past few decades in   China  .  

(4)That is what I can’t agree. à That is where I can’t agree. / That is what I can’t agree with.  

(5)That’s what the secret lies. à That’s where the secret lies. / That’s what the secret lies in.  

5.虚拟语气的误用  

由于汉语中没有虚拟语气的用法,学生在英语写作中需要用虚拟语气的地方常忘记使用。如:  

(1)If I am you, I will help him. à If I were you, I would help him.  

(2)It is high time that we will work hard at our English. à It is high time that we should work hard at our English. / It is high time that we worked hard at our English.  

(3)It is suggested that every student must take part in the activities. à It is suggested that every student (should) take part in the activities.  

(4)I would rather I didn’t take part in the activity yesterday. It was so boring. à I would rather I hadn’t taken part in the activity yesterday. It was so boring.  

为了让学生减少这方面的错误,教师要让学生知道什么时候用虚拟语气。英语中虚拟语气有两种,一种是表示与各种时间的事实不符的假设(因为是假设,所以叫拟),常表达说话人的后悔或遗憾或责备或假想。这种虚拟语气的句法特征是时态都往过去推一步,所以所用时态都是过去相关时态。第二种是名词性从句表示建议、劝告、命令、要求、主张和指示,这些都是希望或要求某人某物要如何如何,所以还没有实现的,也可叫做拟。句法特征是这种名词性从句谓语部分都用(should) do / be.  

另外,教师要归纳几种常见的虚拟语气结构。如:  

(1)if条件句中的虚拟语气  

表示与事实相反的时间  

If条件句谓语动词形式  

主句谓语动词形式  

现在  

一般过去时(be动词用were)  

should/would/could/might + do  

过去  

过去完成时  

should/would/could/might + have done  

将来  

should + do/  

were to + do/  

一般过去时  

should/would/could/might + do  

(2)名词性从句中的虚拟语气  

1)主语从句中的虚拟语气。基本结构是:It is necessary/important/ natural/strange/possible/better/advisable/suggested/required/desired/  

ordered…+ that+主语+(should)+动词原形+其他成分。  

如:It is important that we (should) master a foreign language.  

2)宾语从句中的虚拟语气。基本结构是:主语+advise/suggest/ask/ demand/desire/determine/insist(坚持)/order /propose /recommend/prefer/ require/…+that+主语+(should)+动词原形+其他成分。  

如:They suggested that the work (should) be started tomorrow.  

3)表语从句和同位语从句中的虚拟语气。这类虚拟语气主要由下列表示要求、建议、提议、命令、意愿等名词引出,即:advice, desire, demand, idea, order, proposal, requirement, suggestion等。  

如:I made a suggestion that we (should) hold a meeting next month.  

My idea is that we (should) get more people to attend the conference.  

(3)其他表示与事实不符的虚拟语气句型  

如:I wish he were at home now. But he was ill in hospital.  

I would rather he came tomorrow.  

He looks as if he were ill.  

If only you had worked with great care!  

It is high/about time that the children should go to school.  

6.名词错误  

英语名词和汉语名词用不同的方式体现数的概念,大部分英语名词数都有曲折变化,而汉语没有。汉语中的名词是通过在名词前加表示数量的词,或当该名词是表人时还可以在名词后加来体现数,如果不是表人的名词或名词前没有数词,其数的体现可以从其所处句法结构的相关组成成分,语段或语篇的上下语境中看出。由于忽视了这种区别,高中生在英语写作当中常常出现名词数的错误。如:  

(1).A strange people helped me carry my heavy suitcase at the railway station. à A stranger helped me carry my heavy suitcase at the railway station.  

(2).Many peoples visit the museum during holidays. à Many people visit the museum during holidays.  

(3).Meeting my aunt after many years was unforgettable experience. à Meeting my aunt after many years was an unforgettable experience. (经历,可数)  

(4).He has many experiences in teaching English. à He has much experience in teaching English. (经验,不可数)  

(5).He is success as an actor. à He is a success as an actor. (一个成功的人,可数)  

(6).He achieved many successes in the field of acting. à He achieved much success in the field of acting. (成功,不可数)  

(7).Many middle student spend their pocket money reading. à   

Many middle students spend their pocket money reading.   

(8).This is a bad habits. à This is a bad habit.   

(9).Ten woman teachers took part in the activity. à Ten women teachers took part in the activity.  

(10).There are many childs on the playground. à There are many children on the playground.  

(11).Two Englishmans and three Germen attended the meeting. à Two Englishmen and three Germans attended the meeting.  

(12).The book’s cover is blue. à The cover of the book is blue.  

为了尽可能的避免这方面的错误,教师要让学生了解名词的分类,如可数与不可数;熟悉常见的不规则可数名词复数的变化,如children;理解部分既可以是可数也可以是不可数的名词,如experience, success等。     

为了帮助学生对规则更好地记忆,教师可自编一些顺口溜,如:  

“o”结尾的名词变复数常加“s”,如,photo, zoo等,但高中阶段有四个词要加“es”,即hero à heroes (英雄)Negro à Negroes (黑人), tomato à tomatoes (西红柿)potato à potatoes (土豆) ,笔者把它们概括为两人两菜,这样学生就很轻松的记住了这四个词。  

“f”“fe”结尾的名词变复数常改“f”“fe”“v”再加“es”,如,knife, wife等,但也有一些直接加“s”,笔者把它们概括为:海湾(gulf)边,屋顶(roof)上,农奴(serf)首领(chief)两相望,谁说他们没信仰(belief),证据(proof)就在手帕(handkerchief)上。”  

7.冠词的误用  

由于汉语中没有冠词,高中生在英语写作时常会受汉语的影响,有误加冠词或少用、错用冠词的弊病。如:  

(1).As a middle school students, we should keep in mind that we should spend pocket money on our study. à As middle school students, we should keep in mind that we should spend pocket money on our study.  

(2).Lincoln was made the President of America. à   Lincoln   was made President of America.  

(3).The 29th Olympic Games were held in   Beijing   in the 2008. à The 29th Olympic Games were held in   Beijing   in 2008.   

(4).China experienced a three years of serious financial difficulties period in 1960s. à   China   experienced a three years of serious financial difficulties period in the 1960s.  

(5).He could face life in the prison. à He could face life in prison.  

(6).He goes to school by the bike / by his bike every day. à He goes to school by bike every day.  

(7).He was ill in the bed. à He was ill in bed.  

(8).He patted me on my shoulder. à He patted me on the shoulder.  

(9).He is tallest of the three children. à He is the tallest of the three children.  

(10).Lucy was playing piano when I visited her yesterday. à Lucy was playing the piano when I visited her yesterday.  

(11).There’s nobody in room. à There’s nobody in the room.  

(12).He is very good teacher. à He is a very good teacher.  

(13).It is an useful dictionary. à It is a useful dictionary.  

(14).He is a honest boy. à He is an honest boy.  

为了让学生减少写作中冠词的错误,教师首先要帮助学生归纳不定冠词、定冠词和零冠词的基本用法。另外,教师要让学生了解一些特殊的用法。如:  

(1).个体名词抽象化  

有些个体名词前是否用冠词意思不同。如:  

go to hospital去医院看病/go to the hospital去医院  

in bed卧床/in the bed在床上  

in prison坐牢/in the prison在监狱里  

类似的词还有:school, college, table, class, town, church, court等个体名词,这些名词直接置于介词后,表示该名词的深层含义(某种行为)。  

(2).抽象名词具体化  

有些抽象名词在前面加上不定冠词之后就成了具体名词,如:  

success成功à a success一个成功的人/一件成功的事  

failure失败àa failure一个失败的人/一件失败的事  

类似的词还有:a surprise, a beauty, an effect, an experience, an interest, a pleasure, a service, a trouble, a favor等。  

8.代词使用错误  

英语中代词主要有人称代词、物主代词、关系代词、反身代词、疑问代词、复合疑问代词、指示代词等。人称代词和物主代词是使用频率较高的两种(下面主要讨论这两种代词的错误)。英语中的人称代词有主格、宾格和所有格的变化,各种格都具有其自身的用途,分别充当主语、宾语和定语等。尤其要注意的是,人称代词充当介词宾语时,也要采用其宾格形式。但汉语里,人称代词没有主格、宾格和所有格的变化,受汉语的影响,学生在英语写作中经常出现代词使用错误的情况,如:  

(1).The soldier is determined to try they best to save those who are trapped in the flood. à The soldier is determined to try their best to save those who are trapped in the flood.  

(2).All of my classmates went to watch the game, including I and he. à All of my classmates went to watch the game, including me and him.  

(3).My teacher told they to go there by train. à My teacher told them to go there by train.  

(4).He is my a good friend. à He is a good friend of mine.  

9.情态动词和助动词使用错误  

1.When did you went thereà When did you go there  

2.He musts go now. à He must go now.  

3.We’re read for two hours. à We’ve read for two hours.  

4.They have achieve their goals finally. à They have achieved their goals finally.  

10.非谓语动词的误用  

由于汉语中没有非谓语动词的概念,学生在英语写作时对什么时候使用什么样的非谓语动词概念不是很清,常会出现这样或那样的错误,如:  

(1).It’s useless to complain. à It’s useless complaining.  

(2).My job is teach English. à My job is to teach / teaching English.  

(3).Have a balanced diet is important. à Having a balanced diet is important.  

(4).My father has decided go to   London   next month. à My father has decided to go to   London   next month.  

(5).Our teacher suggested to delay our sports meeting because of bad weather. à Our teacher suggested delaying our sports meeting because of bad weather.  

(6).The movie is excited. à The movie is exciting.  

(7).We are exciting at the news. à We are excited at the news.  

(8).Please remember posting my letter when you go shopping this afternoon. à Please remember to post my letter when you go shopping this afternoon.  

(9).The missing boy was last seen to play near the river. à The missing boy was last seen playing near the river.  

11.主谓不一致  

英语讲究主谓人称、数、时态等方面的一致,谓语变化多,时态、语态、语气的语法概念主要由动词形式的变化来完成,而汉语中没有人称和数的变化,谓语也无字形变化。这类错误主要是由于英汉语言的某些形式和规则系统不同,但被误认为相同所致。如:  

(1)The survey shows that the students who is between 12 and 18 years old spend more money in playing computer games. à The survey shows that the students who are between 12 and 18 years old spend more money in playing computer games.  

(2)They is teachers. à They are teachers.  

(3)The poor in that country is still suffering starvation. à The poor in that country are still suffering starvation.  

(4)One hundred days are not a long time for senior three students. à One hundred days is not a long time for senior three students.  

(5)She go to   Number   Nine   Middle School  . à She goes to   Number   Nine   Middle School  .  

(6)Either my brothers or my father are coming. à Either my brothers or my father is coming.  

(7)Physics are an important subject in middle schools. à Physics is an important subject in middle schools.  

(8)Every means have been tried to solve the problem. à Every means has been tried to solve the problem.  

(9)A committee of five men and three women are to investigate the matter. à A committee of five men and three women is to investigate the matter.  

(10)The famous writer and educator are visiting our school. à The famous writer and educator is visiting our school.  

(11)Bill, together with his sisters, were hurt in the accident. à Bill, together with his sisters, was hurt in the accident.  

(12)Many a boy and many a girl are reading English in the classroom now. à Many a boy and many a girl is reading English in the classroom now.  

12.不完整句子  

汉语中,主谓句除动词谓语句以外,还有名词谓语句、形容词谓语句以及其它非动词谓语句,而英语则是以动词为核心的语言,主系表结构的句子必须通过系动词才能把已知的信息和未知的信息联系在一起。  

(1)It not only good for health, but also can save money. à It is not only good for health, but also can save money.   

(2)We should careful when we cross the road. à We should be careful when we cross the road.  

(3)I against the idea. à I am against the idea.  

(4)I usually by bike to school. à I usually go to school by bike.  

(5)The man who in charge of the park was glad to meet us. à The man who was in charge of the park was glad to meet us  

(6)He bought a new bike yesterday and gave to his son for his birthday. à He bought a new computer yesterday and gave it to his son for his birthday.   

(7)The blind man across the street with difficulty. à The blind man went across the street with difficulty.   

(8)At noon we had lunch. After we began to watch the football match. à At noon we had lunch. After that we began to watch the football match.   

(9)I doing my homework now. à I am doing my homework.  

(10)The Internet becomes an important part in our life. Because many things are done on line. à The Internet becomes an important part in our life, because many things are done on line.  

(11)To learn English should be step by step. à To learn English, one should go step by step.  

(12)I am tired, I must go on working. à I am tired, but I must go on working. / Although I am tired, I must go on working.  

(13)The story is about a poor little girl lived in old   China  . à The story is about a poor little girl who lived in old   China  .   

13.句子逻辑错误  

由于汉语中的逻辑性是隐性的,是在字里行间体现出来的,有时没有那些直接表示句子成分关系的连接词,我们依然非常清楚二者之间的关系,而且,少了这些语法上的束缚,我们在行文表达上也就更加的随意,即使是用词的先后顺序上做些变动,也照样可以表达同样的意思。但英语的逻辑性比汉语要强得多,受汉语的影响,学生在英语写作中常会出现前后不合逻辑错误表达,如:  

(1)To learn English well, his parents bought him a dictionary. à To learn English well, he asked his mother to buy him a dictionary.  

(2)You won’t be late unless you take a taxi. à You will be late unless you take a taxi.  

(3)Eating fruit and vegetables, it will make you have a good eating habit. à Eating fruit and vegetables, you will have a good eating habit.  

(4) This place can’t park. à You can’t park your car here.   

(5)Being an honest man, Mr. Luo works very hard. à Being an honest man, Mr. Luo never tells a lie to his students..  

(6)Hurry up, and you’ll miss the train. à Hurry up, or you’ll miss the train.  

(7)As a child, his mother often scolded him. à When he was a child, his mother often scolded him.  

针对这些错误,教师可以通过正误对比的方式让学生了解英语句子逻辑性,以便让学生写作时少出现这样的错误,如例(1)中,教师可列举这样几个句子让学生比较:  

To learn English well, he asked his mother to buy him a dictionary. (right)  

To learn English well, his parents bought him a dictionary.(wrong)   

To learn English well, a dictionary was bought for him.(wrong)  

14.中文式句子  

受中文的影响,学生常常按照中文句子的词序直接将中文一一翻译成英语单词组成句子,致使英语句子语序混乱或出现多个谓语等错误。如:  

(1)This morning I and my classmates by bus went to the beautiful place. à My classmates and I went to the beautiful place by bus this morning.  

(2)On the table the book is mine. à The book on the table is mine.  

(3)Today I with my parents at home watched a football match. à My parents watched a football match with me at home today.  

(4)In the afternoon the farmers with us signed and danced à The farmers sang and danced with us in the afternoon.  

(5)Standing there the student is my cousin à The student standing there is my cousin.  

(6)The duty of doctors is to rescue the dying and heal the wounded. à The duty of doctors is to heal the wounded and rescue the dying.  

(7)I like best the physical exercise is to play football. à The physical exercise I like best is to play football.  

(8) There are many other good ways will help you improve your English. à There are many other good ways that will help you improve your English.  

(9)The problem is many parents will leave their hometown, with their children left home alone. à The problem is that many parents will leave their hometown, with their children left home alone.  

(10)Parents make money is not easy. à It is not easy for parents to make money.  

(11)In order to the students can right spend their pocket money, I suggest that they should have a plan to control themselves. à In order to help the students spend their pocket money properly, I suggest that they should have a plan on their pocket money.  

(12) In the house have a few foreignersà There are a few foreigners in the house   

(13)Every time when I was in despair, I had a dream of being a strong person in society. à Every time I was in despair, I had a dream of being a strong person in society  

(14)Now is five o’clock. à It is five o’clock now.  

(15)He hurried to run to the riverside. à He hurried to the riverside.  

(16)I very like it. à I like it very much.  

(17)I bought a skirt yesterday is very beautiful. à I bought a skirt yesterday which is very beautiful.  

(18)Not only he is interested in biology, but also his children begin to show interest in it. à Not only is he interested in biology, but also his children begin to show interest in it.  

为了减少句子结构方面的错误,教师可以分两个阶段训练学生。  

第一阶段,进行五种基本句型的造句练习。例如:  

(1)S+V à The news spread quickly.  

(2)S+V+O à He helped me.  

(3)S+V+P à They lived in a small village.  

(4)S+V+O(I)+O(D) à My father bought me a bike.  

(5)S+V+O+C à We should keep the rivers clean.  

第二阶段,进行句子的合并练习。当学生对基本句型比较熟悉了,教师就可以加深难度,对学生进行合并句子的练习。在这一阶段,教师应要求学生掌握必要的连词。例如:  

He was late for class. The traffic was heavy. 合并为 He was late for class because the traffic was heavy.  

I still remember the day. I first met at the airport on the day. 合并为 I still remember the day when I first met at the airport.  

   3.2 思维模式的影响  

语言的主要功能是传递信息和交流信息,人们进行语言表达的时候,不可避免的受到长期自己特殊的思维模式的影响和制约。在英语写作中,中国学生也会受到自己思维模式的影响和制约而在写作中出现各种错误。英汉思维模式的区别主要体现在以下几个方面:  

1.整体思维优先与解析思维优先  

中国人思维时是先注意整个图象,然后才注意到细节,因此叫做整体优先的思维方式,也叫具象思维;而英国人的思维方式是解析式思维,或叫做抽象思维,这种思维是以个别部分为起点,然后再形成一个整体。由于这种差别所产生的写作错误也常出现,如:  

(1)In the classroom have some students.    àThere are some students in the classroom.   

(2)I’m studying in  China ,   Hunan   Province  , Liuyang, No. 9 Senior School. à I’m studying in No. 9 Senior School,  Liuyang ,  Hunan  Province,   China    

2.意合和形合  

Eugene A.Nida (1982) 说过,从语言学角度看,英、汉语言之间最重要的区别莫过于于形合(hypotaxis)与意合(parataxis)之分了。汉语是一种意合语言,句子内部或句与句之间的关系是依靠语义手段(semantic connection)相互关联的。而英语大致而言是形合语言,句子内部或句与句之间的意义是通过句法手段(syntactic devices)或词汇手段(lexical devices)来维系的。在高中生英语写作中由于英汉语言的这种区别而产生的错误经常可见,如:  

(1)The work was finished, the workers packed their tools and went home. à As the work was finished, the workers packed their tools and went home.  

(2)He is ill, he doesn’t come. à Because he is ill, he doesn’t come.  

(3)Because he hadn’t worked hard at English, so he didn’t pass the last exam. à Because he hadn’t worked hard at English, he didn’t pass the last exam. / He hadn’t worked hard at English, so he didn’t pass the last exam.  

(4)Although he had failed many times, but he didn’t give up making the experiment. à Although he had failed many times, he didn’t give up making the experiment. / He had failed many times, but he didn’t give up making the experiment.  

3.修饰语在前和尾重原则  

英语习惯把字数较多和语言结构较复杂的成分置于句末,也就是谓语要比主语部分长,所以英语常常通过it, there be等语法形式来达到这一目的,而汉语一般按照逻辑和时间的顺序来排列,把修饰语放在前面。高中生往往由于不了解这种区别而写出一些不是很地道的英语句子,如:  

To master a foreign language is difficult. àIt is difficult to master a foreign language.  

在复合句中,英语的主句为主要部分,一般放在句首,从句放在后面,而汉语则相反。如:  

(1)Since 1979, great changes have taken place in our hometown. àGreat changes have taken place in our hometown since 1979.  

(2)Word that he had been admitted to   Beijing   University   came. à Word came that he had been admitted to   Beijing   University  .  

4.螺旋性思维和直线性思维  

汉语思维是螺旋性思维,而英语思维是直线性思维。在写作中则表现为汉语喜欢铺陈渲染,绕着圈子进入主题;而英语是直截了当地陈述主题,进行论述。许多学生由于受汉语思维方式影响在写英语作文时往往开头无关紧要的话讲了一大通,等到进入主题时却又聊聊几笔,结果造成主次不分,主题不突出,如  

(1)学生的一则请假条  

                                       October 25th, 2010  

Dear Teacher,  

I hurt my leg on my way home yesterday and I have to go to see the doctor this morning, so I can’t go to school. Please excuse me for my absence from class today.  

Huang Xiaobo  

上面的请假条开始先按汉语的习惯讲述了自己伤了脚要去看医生,最后才写主要事件请假,而英美国家在写请假条时常开门见山提出请假要求:Please excuse me for my absence for class today 然后再陈述伤了脚要去看医生这个原因。西方人习惯果在前在后,而中国人是在前,在后。  

(2)学生的一篇习作  

假如你是李华,家住在一座青山环绕的湖边。最近,你们村准备在上级的帮助下开发这里的旅游资源。请你根据下表提供的信息,写一篇140词左右的英语短文,分`析一下开发你们村的利弊。  

Advantages  

Disadvantages  

{C}<!--[if !supportLists]-->1.      <!--[endif]-->offer more jobs;  

{C}<!--[if !supportLists]-->2.      <!--[endif]-->develop more quickly;  

{C}<!--[if !supportLists]-->3.      <!--[endif]-->…  

{C}<!--[if !supportLists]-->1.      <!--[endif]-->destroy the natural beauty;  

{C}<!--[if !supportLists]-->2.      <!--[endif]-->make people think more about money;  

{C}<!--[if !supportLists]-->3.      <!--[endif]--> 

学生习作的第一段如下:  

I’m Li Hua. I live in a beautiful village, where there is a large lake with some cute hills surrounding it. I love the lake because of its wonderful scenery and I can also go fishing in it. Many villagers go swimming in it in hot summer. Most importantly, it attracts many other people who love nature from all around our city. So we decide to open up the lake into a tourist resort. However, every coin has two sides.  

….  

这篇文章第一段前面几句都是中文式的铺垫,直到最后才提及开发村庄,这不符合英语中开门见山的直线性思维方式。笔者认为可将第一段改为:  

As is known to all, tourism is becoming an important business in the world. Our village, where there is a beautiful lake with some cute hills surrounding it, is also our villagers’ agenda to open up into a tourist resort.  

学生只有了解英汉语篇思维模式的差异,才能摆脱汉语语篇思维的干扰,在写作中自觉地按英语的思维特点构思文章。  

语言学家Michael Mecarthy把英语语篇模式归纳为三种:  

(1)一般特殊型  

这种思维模式是英语中最常见的、最具代表性的。在社会科学和自然科学的议论文和说明文中,或描写和记叙文中,西方人常常运用这种线性思维模式。无论是段落或整个语篇中,这种结构模式几乎到处可见。它主要有两种表现形式。  

第一种是概括------举例式。这种结构模式的段首句一般是一个概括句,可以表达某种观点、看法、结论或定义,以及原则和原理,下文就对首句的内容进行展开、分析或论证等。  

第二种是整体------细节式。其段首句往往是主题,然后再给出具体细节。  

(2)问题解决型  

这种思维模式的特点是先说明情况,然后引出问题,随后对问题进行分析解决,最后进行相应的评价。在叙事性文体、文学作品、科技知识、社会问题等的说明文中常出现这种结构模式。  

(3)匹配比较型  

英语中常用这种思维模式去比较两种事物的异同点。  

值得注意的是,在较长的语篇中,这几种结构模式也可能会一起出现。  

      四、相应的教学策略  

综上所述,语际负迁移是高中生英语写作时经常出错的一个重要原因。它增加了英语学习的难度,在很多方面阻碍了学生的学习。上文提到高中生英语写作语际负迁移错误主要是由于英汉文化、思维模式的区别造成的。笔者认为,高中英语教师可以通过下面的教学来减少学生这方面错误,提高他们英语写作的能力。  

4.1加强对英美文化的了解  

语言是文化的载体,不同的文化体现在语言上也会有所不同。在跨文化的语言交际中,因文化差异导致的错误往往要比语言本身出现的错误会更严重。因此教师要不断加强自身对英语语言文化的了解和掌握,并且在教学中,教师要注重有关文化的教学。英汉文化差异体现在很多方面,如:在日常交流时,中国人在见面打招呼、分别、介绍、感谢、道歉、送礼、餐桌礼仪、赞美他人、称呼、打电话等方面都与英美人有很多的不同。英汉文化差异还体现在词汇、习语、语法、生活习俗、风土人情等方面。在英语写作教学中,教师要注重文化差异因素的影响,采取有效的教学方法去提高学生的文化差异方面的意识。  

首先,教师要充分利用好教材。比如,在高中牛津英语教材中,英美文化的每个章节中都有所体现。拿School Life这一单元为例,这个单元讲述了中国的学校上课时间长,教室固定,课外活动缺乏;而西方一些国家的中学校园宽阔,学生在校时间短,教室不定,课外活动丰富。中国学生每天背着大大的书包上学,而西方国家学校每个学生都有属于自己的小柜子,可以把私人物品锁在柜中,不必每天背来背去。于是在结合教学内容时,我们就可以搜集一些关于英美国家高中校园、学校生活的照片或视频让学生欣赏,让学生有一个直观的了解,加深他们对中西方校园文化差别的理解。 在这一单元中还涉及到了西方人喜欢在餐后用甜点的习惯,那么教师可以趁此机会介绍一下中西方饮食文化的差异,让学生更多的了解西方国家的生活习惯。课文学习完后,以教材内容为依据,教师可以设计相关题材的英语写作、翻译练习和课文缩写等来练习学生的写作。  

另外,教师要鼓励学生去阅读相关报纸、杂志来了解英美国家的文化。  

4.2培养运用英语思维的习惯  

英汉语言的思维方式不同也常会使中国学生在英语写作时犯这种或那种错误,只有不断培养、强化学生的英语语言习惯,形成英语思维,才能让学生写出地道、规范、符号英语习惯的作文。  

首先,教师要为学生创造良好的英语语言学习环境。语言环境是学习语言的必要条件,拥有良好的语言环境,对于中国学生学习非母语——英语是至关重要的。例如:教师在授课时可尽可能多的使用英语,利用多媒体等手段让学生接触真实的英语学习环境;鼓励学生多开口说英语;定期的组织英语活动等。  

其次,教师要运用对比分析的方法让学生了解英汉思维方式的差异,并引导学生运用英语思维。  

4.3加强语法教学  

从对学生写作中的常见错误统计来看,学生写作中的语法错误很多。笔者认为,教师要加强高中生的语法教学,通过对比分析让学生了解英汉语法规则的区别。教师可把写作教学与语法教学相结合。例如,在学习一般过去时这种时态时,教师不妨设计一篇基本时态是一般过去时的英语作文给学生练习,这样的话学生可以在写作中熟悉这种时态的用法。  

     五、结束语  

综上所述,高中生在英语写作中由于受汉语的影响,经常会写出不合乎英语习惯的句子,教师要根据学生不同的错误类型采取恰当的教学策略,以提高学生的写作能力。但英语写作能力的提高是一个循序渐进的过程,这需要高中教师在平时的教学中注重让学生多积累好词好句,多背诵经典段落或文章,形成良好的英语思维的习惯。  

 

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